Cabochon Ruby Gemstone Information

Ruby is known as the top red variety in the corundum family. Rubies have been one of the world's most valued gemstones for centuries. Ruby cabochons have been used in the crowns and jewelry of kings and noblemen since they were first discovered. The pigeon blood red Gemstone of passion and of smoldering desire, rubies have been treasured for thousands of years.  Less transparent rubies are often cut into the cabochon shape for use in jewelry. Other popular shapes include square, pear, trillion, round, emerald cut, oval, cushion, and heart shaped cut rubies in many color nuances, which include a pink red ruby to an intense vivid pigeon blood red ruby.

Fine Burma Rubies, especially Burmese ruby are among the rarest and most expensive gemstones in the world.  Prized for their beauty, durability, and rarity, it is the quality of the color which most determines the value of the stones. The pigeon blood red Burma Ruby stone color is that of a red traffic light, a highly fluorescent red of high intensity. Demand for gem quality Burma Ruby has always been strong with mining records from Burmese gemstones dating back almost 500 years. Officially, ruby, jade, other minerals and gems are Burma’s (Myanmar's) fifth-largest export, but government statistics are notoriously unreliable. Official ruby gem and jade sales are sold at Myanmar’s gem auctions, but hundreds of millions of dollars worth of gems are leaking across borders to China, Thailand, and India every year, selling at open market prices.


Burma Ruby Mining                                                  Mogok Ruby Mine


Cabochon Rubies from Burma are considered the best, for one simple reason - their color. The most famous localities for Burma Ruby Cabochons are in the districts around Mogok in northern Burma and at Mong Hsu about 250km east of Mandalay. Burmese Ruby Cabochons are known for their fine fluorescent red color in any kind of light. The red color of Burma stones is often said, to be pigeon’s blood red.  Many of the Rubies are bright red and may contain traces of blue or pink. Burma Cabochon Rubies are rarely clean and the prices for Burma Cabochon Ruby are higher than that of Cabochon Rubies from any other deposits.

Sapphire and Ruby are both corundum, Sapphires are corundum of all colors except red.  Red corundum is called ruby, Burmese ruby comes from Burma. Although pure corundum is colorless, sapphire results from a combination of titanium and iron oxides. Blue, pink and yellow sapphire and Burma Ruby are more familiar and treasured than almost any other gemstone variety.
The prices, uses and value of Cabochon Ruby can differ greatly, depending on the size and quality of the  individual gemstone.  AJS Gems is your source for the highest quality colored gems from across the globe, available at Bangkok direct wholesale prices.  Your gorgeous gemstone from AJS Gems is guaranteed to impress when set into any jewelry, be it a bold mans ring, a dainty ladies ring, a pendant necklace or earrings sold as a matched set.  Our loose gemstones are used to create the finest gem stone jewelry - You will positively love setting your loose cut gems into yellow gold, white gold, silver or platinum jewelry.  Discover the thrill of creating your own unique top quality rings, earrings, pendants,  wedding sets, or that  special bracelet necklace set to be given as a gift to the love of your life.  Creating the finest jewelry starts with finding the best gemstones, and the best gemstones are found at AJS Gems.

Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry?
There are many reasons, but basically it boils down to value and choice.

When buying your gemstone loose instead of a pre-set stone, you can be sure you are getting the best value for your money.  Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for.  The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting.  A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color.  With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is.  In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice.  You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver; prong set or bezel set.  You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!
                                                   Star ruby pendant                                                 


Origin Madagascar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Burma, Burmese, Australia, India, Kenya, Tanzania, U.S.A., China
red, blood red, vivid red, pigeon blood red, pinkish red, orangey red, loose cabochon ruby gemstones come in all shades of red.
Refractive Index 1.759-1.778
Chemical Composition AL2 O3
Hardness 9
Density 4
Crystal Structure Trigonal
Anniversary 5th and 45th

Cabochon Ruby's striking color is just one reason for this gemstone's popularity. As with all corundum, they are also extremely durable, having a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. Cordundum has a specific gravity of 4.00, a refractive index of 1.76 - 1.78, and birefringence of 0.008.  The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral. Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.
Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs. Ruby is classified as having a trigonal crystalline structure because they have three planes of symmetry and four axes. Three axes are at 60 degrees to each other in the same plane. The fourth axis is perpendicular and unequal in length to the other three. The form of a sapphire's crystals depends on the variety and locality.  Ruby may have an uneven or a conchoidal fracture but no real cleavage. The amount of light reflected at the surface of a gemstone is its luster and Ruby has a glassy (vitreous) luster as opposed to the waxy, greasy, or resinous luster of other stones.


Color is the single most important factor in determining the value of a sapphire.  Indeed, the color of a sapphire is more important than its clarity. Sapphires are rarely clean and even very expensive stones can be slightly included. Subtle differences in color can make great variations in valuations of fine gemstones. Fine loose gemstones of good color and clarity are always rare and valuable. Highly saturated medium or medium dark tones are best, sapphires which are too dark or too light are worth considerably less.

The name sapphire comes from the Greek word "sapphirus", meaning "blue".  However, sapphire gemstones come in many colors including pink, yellow, orange, green, black, color-change, purple, violet, light blue, and the rare orange-pink Padparadscha sapphire gems. Padparadscha comes from the Sinahalese word meaning "lotus color". Sapphires other than blue, pink, yellow, green and orange sapphire are usually called "natural fancy-color sapphire". Red hues result from traces of chromium. The greater the concentration of oxides the deeper the color.


Ovals, rounds, cushions and emeralds are the most common cuts for sapphire, due to the typical shape of sapphire rough. Other popular sapphire shapes include pears, briolettes, hearts and  marquises.  Ruby is cut into the cabochon shape in order to develop and properly display the star effect.  Fibers or fibrous cavities within a gem such as a Star Ruby reflect the light which causes a star to appear within the stone. A six-ray Star Ruby has three sets of parallel fibers. Skilled cutters can sometimes create a 12-ray star sapphire but they are rare.


The traditional heating of ruby and sapphire is a widely used and is an accepted enhancement process which can improve the transparency and color of the stones. Techniques range from simply throwing gems into a fire to be cooked, to employing sophisticated electric or gas furnaces at specific pressures and atmospheric conditions. The treatment is permanent and heated stones do not require any special care.

New treatments which are used to produce blue, pink, orange and yellow sapphire stones are more controversial. This new treatment is a heat-diffusion process which is stable and may or may not completely penetrate the stone. The color is achieved through a process which includes the addition of foreign elements to achieve the desired color alteration. We at AJS Gems will always disclose this treatment.
AJS Gems fully discloses any and all treatments to our gemstones.


The most famous source of top quality rubies known to mankind is the Mogok Stone tract of Burma (Myanmar). This has remained the world’s premier source of gem grade rubies for over 800 years. While fine examples can be found in Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and a few other sources, none can compare with the purity and intensity of the finest “pigeon blood” rubies of Burma.

About 650 kilometers north of the Burmese capital Rangoon (Yangoon) in the Katha district of Northern Burma, lies a 180 square kilometer zone consisting of heavily jungled hills, several ethnic groups, and what is arguably one of the most picturesque regions in the entire country. For several centuries the region has seen lots more human blood spilt that pigeon’s blood in the quest of the prized “padamya” the Burmese term for ruby.

Other terms for ruby such as the Thai word “taubptim” are also derived from the word for the pomegranate fruit. Traditionally, the Burmese have referred to the finest hue of ruby as “pigeon’s blood” (ko-twe), a term which may be of Chinese origin. Top quality color was described as that of a drop of blood (drawn from an artery) on a highly polished silver plate.

Rubies from Mogok owe their intense beauty to two different optical effects. First is the purity and saturation of the red color common to these rare gems. Second is the often strong flourescent reaction to ultraviolet light which adds a red glow to the gems when viewed in natural light. Put the two together and you have an unbeatable combination of color sources resulting in a glowing red not found elsewhere in nature.


The myths, legends, beliefs, superstitions, traditions and symbolism associated with sapphire have been numerous...

Legend has it that the first person to wear Sapphire was Prometheus, the rival of Zeus, who took the gemstone from Cacaus, where he also stole fire from heaven for man.

Known as the "Gem of Heaven", the ancient Persians believed Sapphires were a chip from the pedestal that supported the earth, and that its reflections gave the sky its colors.

Tradition holds that Moses was given the Ten Commandments on tablets of sapphire, making it the most sacred gemstone. Because blue sapphires represent divine favor, they were the gemstone of choice for kings and high priests. The British Crown Jewels are full of large blue sapphires, the symbol of pure and wise rulers.

The guardians of innocence, Sapphires symbolize truth, sincerity and faithfulness, and are thought to bring peace, joy and wisdom to their owners. In ancient times it was believed that when the wearer of a Sapphire faced challenging obstacles, the gem's power enabled them to find the correct solution.

In India it was believed that a Sapphire immersed in water formed an elixir that could cure the bite of scorpions and snakes. Alternatively, if it were worn as a talisman pendant, it would protect the wearer against evil spirits.

The following legend is Burmese in origin and highlights Sapphires‘ connection with faithfulness: “Eons ago Tsun-Kyan-Kse, a golden haired goddess with Sapphire blue eyes, presided lovingly over the temple of Lao-Tsun. Everyday, the temple‘s chief monk Mun-Ha, meditated before the golden goddess accompanied by his devoted companion, a green-eyed cat named Sinh. One day the temple was besieged by a group of terrible outlaws. When they threw Mun-Ha to the floor, Sinh leapt fiercely at the bandits, jumping up on his master‘s chest to protect him. The wrong doers fled screaming in fear, never to return and in gratitude for his courage, the golden goddess awarded Sinh with her Sapphire blue eyes. To this day, Sinh‘s ancestors guard over the temple.” The temple still stands and is populated by Siamese cat‘s with striking blue eyes (typically this breed has green eyes).



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