Cat's Eye Citrine Gemstone Information


Cat’s Eye Citrine is formed is due to the presence of fibrous mineral inclusions.  Fibers in the forms of tubes are found within some citrines. When cut in a cabochon shape the parallel fibers become more pronounced and striking, producing the cat's eye effect or chatoyancy. Its chatoyancy, crystal structure, and transparency make these gems stand out from normal citrine        Cats Eye Citrine

Shining with a golden glow, people have long treasured cat's eye citrine as a gift from the sun. Citrine, a variety of transparent quartz, is named after the French citron, or lemon. Its color ranges from a juicy lemon yellow to a bright orangey brown. In all of its glorious golden and yellow colors, citrine is the most affordable of all the earth-toned gemstones, the perfect complement to all the warm tones in your wardrobe. Its sunny shades are also a lovely way to light up black and gray or contrast against blue.

Citrine was particularly popular in the retro jewelry of the 1940s. Its sunny color and dramatic proportions suited the streamlined style and bold gold of the era. It was often set with ruby, peridot, and aquamarine in colorful brooches, necklaces and bracelets. Jewelry designers today also love to set citrine in yellow gold, either alone or in combination with amethyst, blue topaz, or peridot.

The prices, uses and value of Cat’s Eye Citrine can differ greatly, depending on the size and quality of the  individual gemstone. AJS Gems is your source for the highest quality colored gems from across the globe, available at Bangkok direct wholesale prices. Creating the finest jewelry starts with finding the best gemstones, and the best gemstones are found at AJS Gems.


Why Buy Loose Gemstones Instead of Pre-Set Jewelry?
 

There are many reasons, but basically it boils down to value and choice.

When buying your Cat’s Eye Citrine gemstone loose instead of a pre-set stone, you can be sure you are getting the best value for your money.  Loose gemstones are less expensive, a better value, and you can really see what you are paying for.  The most important part of getting the right price and finding the best value is to first see what you're getting.  A jewelry setting will hide the inclusions inside a gem, and can deepen or brighten its color.  With a loose stone you can much more easily inspect the gem and see it for what it really is.  In this way you can get a better idea of its true worth and be sure you are paying a fair price.

The second advantage of buying a loose gemstone is choice.  You are free to pick the exact color, cut, shape and variety of the stone for the setting of your dreams, be it yellow gold, white gold, platinum or silver; prong set or bezel set with diamond accents.  You can experience the joy of creating your very own, one-of-a-kind jewelry design. Choose from a variety of jewelry settings and styles to create a completely original presentation that will perfectly suit your individual gemstone and will be as unique as you are!



Attributes

Origin The most important deposits of natural citrine are in Brazil. Other locations include Argentina, Madagascar, Myanmar (Burma), Namibia, Russia, France, Scotland and Spain.
Color Light to dark yellow, lemon yellow, gold-brown, Madeira
Refractive Index 1.544 - 1.553
Chemical Composition  SiO2
Hardness 7
Density 2.6 - 2.7
Crystal Structure Hexagonal

Cat's Eye Citrine is a macrocrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz (SiO2). Quartz is one of the most abundant minerals on earth. It makes up about 12% of the earth's crust, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

Quartz varieties are commonly separated into two groups based on the size of the individual grains or crystals; macrocrystalline quartz in which individual crystals are distinguishable with the naked eye, and cryptocrystalline quartz in which the individual crystals are too small to be easily distinguishable under the light microscope.

Some of the macrocrystalline quartz varieties are: Amethyst, Ametrine, Cat's-eye Quartz, Citrine, Phantom Quartz , Rock Crystal, Rose Quartz, Rutilated Quartz and Smoky Quartz.  Blue Aventurine Quartz and Green Aventurine Quartz are actually quartzites (a rock, not a mineral) composed essentially of interlocking macrocrystalline quartz grains with disseminated grains of other color imparting minerals.

The cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz may be separated into two types; fibrous and microgranular. Chalcedony is the general term applied to the fibrous cryptocrystalline varieties. Agate is an example of a fibrous cryptocystalline banded chalcedony variety of quartz. Carnelian, Chrysoprase and bloodstone are other chalcedony varieties. Chert is the general term applied to the granular cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz, of which flint and Jasper are examples.

Naturally occurring cat's eye citrine derives its golden color from the presence of iron (Fe3) ions.  The difference between amethyst and citrine is only the oxidation state of the iron impurities present in the quartz. Upon heating, the iron impurities are reduced and amethyst's purple color fades and becomes yellow to reddish-orange (citrine), green, or colorless depending on the site and original oxidation state of the iron impurities present and the amount and duration of the heating. The amethystine color usually can be regained by irradiation which re-oxidizes the iron impurities. This irradiation can be done by synthetic means, or it can occur in nature by radioactive decay of nearby radioactive minerals. In most cases this is a reversible process, however excessive heating may change the distribution of the iron impurities at the different sites within the quartz making it impossible to convert it back to amethyst by subsequent irradiation. The heating process can occur naturally or synthetically.

Citrine has a chemical formula of SiO2, a density of 2.60 - 2.70, and a refractive index of 1.544 - 1.553.  The refractive index (RI), measured using a refractometer, is an indication of the amount light rays are bent by a mineral.  Birefringence is the difference between the minimum and maximum RI. When birefringence is high, light rays reflect off different parts of the back of a stone causing an apparent doubling of the back facets when viewed through the front facet.

Most gems have a crystalline structure. Crystals have planes of symmetry and are divided into seven symmetry systems. The number of axes, their length, and their angle to each other determine the system to which a crystal belongs.  Citrine gemstones belong to the Hexagonal crystal system.  Catseye citrine is composed of an irregular superposition of alternate lamellae of right-handed and left-handed quartz. It has been shown that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses. As a consequence of this composite formation, citrine is apt to break with a rippled fracture or to show "thumb markings", and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning".

Because it has a hardness of seven on the Mohs scale, chatoyant cats eye citrine is suitable for use in any style of jewelry.


Color
         
Cat's eye citrine includes yellow to gold to orange brown and madeira color shades.  Cat's eye citrine is available in a variety of colors of yellow, yellow-brown, madeira, orange, red-orange, dark orange-brown, and reddish-brown. Though the darker, orange colors of Citrine have historically been considered more valuable, many people are today beginning to prefer the bright, juicy, lemony shades that Citrine offers.
 
Sunny and affordable, citrine can brighten almost any jewelry style, blending especially well with the yellow gleam of polished gold.  Natural stones tend to be pale yellow, often with smoky tones. 
 
Concerning value, at the top end of the scale are prime specimens of the most saturated yellows, oranges and reddish tones. Those with less intense color fall into lower value ranges with pale or smoky stones at the bottom.
 

Cut 

Cat's eye Citrine is cut in a cabochon shape so that the parallel fibers become much more pronounced and striking, called the Cat’s Eye effect or chatoyancy.
 

Treatments
 
Natural stones tend to be pale yellow, often with smoky tones.The vast majority of citrine which is marketed is produced by heating smoky quartz, (which produces light to medium yellows,) and amethyst, (which produces stronger yellows and orange-red to orangey brown shades.) The temperature used defines the color. Brazilian amethyst turns light yellow at 878 degrees F (470 degrees C) and dark-yellow to red-brown at 1022-1040 degrees F (550-560 degrees C). Some smoky quartzes turn into citrine color already at about 390 degrees F (200 degrees C).  The treatment is usually done right at the mine, and is stable, and fully accepted within the gem trade.
 
Recently, colorless quartz from some mines have been irradiated and heated to produce a neon, slightly greenish yellow, usually called Lemon Quartz.
 
AJS Gems fully discloses any and all treatments to our gemstones.
 

Sources  

Most loose citrine is mined in Brazil, particularly the state of Rio Grande do Sul.  Natural citrine can also be found in the Ural Mountains of Russia, in Dauphine, France, and in Madagascar.  Historically, it has been found in Spain, on the Scottish island of Arran, in Hungary and in several mines overseas. 
 

Mythology

Citrine has been used in Greece since the Hellenistic period at the end of the 4th to the end of the 1st century BC.

It has been said that Citrine helps to manifest your goals.

Citrine is a cheerful gem. Its powers are said to include making its wearer lighthearted, bringing cheerfulness in tough times and offering hope.

It was also believed to help relax people and expel impurities from the body. People who wore citrine could expect to look healthy and feel happy.

Citrine does not absorb negative energies but rather dissipates and transmutes them, which is why this stone is good for clearing your aura.

Citrine relieves itching and soothes allergic reactions. It also enhances abundance and aids the ability to organize.

It attracts abundance, prosperity, and success, and because of this Citrine has been nicknamed the "success stone."

Citrine stimulates the solar plexas and third eye chakras, promoting stamina and activating intuition.

It can also help to overcome sleep related problems such as insomnia and nightmares.

Physically it is said to help with poor blood circulation, digestion, allergies, and an aid to curing life-threatening diseases.

In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts.

Citrine is the birthstone for the month of November and the gemstone representing the 13th wedding anniversary.

 
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